What is humanity? What is that special endowment that the humans have that distinguishes them from other creatures? Philosophical reflections on topics like this engaged the Indian scholars around 900 BC when they happened to ponder on the cosmology of the universe. Massive wars and major conflicts had already happened resulting in huge loss of life and long periods of unrest. This talk examines the philosophical speculations that have flourished to build humanity as a rational discovery. Humanity is not grandiose, but it is joyful internal peace!